## Stability of Power Supply Systems

Programme Summary

Major: 13.04.02 Power Industry and Electrical Engineering

Specialisation: Power Supply

Degree: Master

Course units:

Introduction. Origins and developments in research on power system stability.

Unit 1. Static stability analysis methods

Unit 2. Electromagnetic transient equations

Unit 3. Dynamic stability analysis methods

Unit 4. Stability of load nodes

Unit 5. Effect of generator regulators on stability

Unit 6. Asynchronous operation modes of AC machines

Unit 7. Isolated operation of industrial power plants

Unit 8. Analysis of static and dynamic stability of isolated electric power systems

Course contents:

Introduction. Origins and developments in research on power system stability.

A brief overview of the origins and developments in research on power system stability. Evolution of the stability analysis methods in Russia and abroad. Analysis, design and control of transients. Main goals and tasks of the course and its connection to related disciplines. Main forms of stability, their features and impact on the power system. Physical and mathematical modelling principles and techniques in stability studies. Application of computers.

Unit 1. Static stability analysis methods

Sustainability of steady state. General description of static stability analysis methods. Compiling a set of steady state equations. Accurate static stability assessment criteria. Stability of a power system comprising generators equipped with ATS. Small oscillations method in case of operation off an infinite bus or within a multimachine system. Calculation of relative acceleration and synchronizing power. Practical static stability assessment criteria and their application. Looking into possible solutions for the set of steady state equations aimed at analyzing stability. Self-oscillation and its approximate evaluation. Static dead-beat and oscillatory stability. Stability of long-distance power lines.

Unit 2. Electromagnetic transient equations

An approach of dynamic stability analysis. Quality of a transient. An insight into dynamic stability criteria. Basic assumptions. The motion equation of a generator rotor and its solution. The equation of the flux linkage in a synchronous machine. Application of the Park-Gorev equations for a power system. Application of simplified Park-Gorev equations. Numerical integration of differential equation systems. The Runge-Kutt methods.

Unit 3. Dynamic stability analysis methods

General description of dynamic stability analysis methods. Simplified methods of dynamic stability analysis. Dynamic stability assessment criteria. Method of successive intervals. Area rule. Dynamic stability calculation. EMF change behind transient and subtransient inductive reactance. Stability improvement. Quick fault clearing. Synchronous generator parameters and their impact on stability. Impact of the neutral point on dynamic stability. Machine oscillations. High forced oscillations.

Unit 4. Stability of load nodes

Static and dynamic load characteristics of industrial consumers. Static stability of load nodes. Safety factors. Secondary signs of load stability. Dynamic stability of synchronous and induction motors. Stability criteria for synchronous and induction motors. Synchronous motor excitation current control and stability. Stability of a cluster of motors. Effect of static capacitor banks and synchronous capacitors on stability. Self-starting of motors.

Unit 5. Effect of generator regulators on stability

Features of prime movers. Features of speed governors. The purpose of primary and secondary regulation. Emergency turbine control. Synchronous generator excitation and automatic transfer switching. Selection of regulation channel parameters by voltage deviation. Static characteristics of excitation and speed governors. Effect of excitation and speed governors on static and dynamic stability of turbogenerators. The behavior of governors during oscillations. Frequency and voltage control in an electric power system and its impact on stability.

Unit 6. Asynchronous operation modes of AC machines

Asynchronous operation of a synchronous generator. General provisions of asynchronous operation calculation methods. Asynchronous operation of a synchronous motor. The nature of asynchronous power and its impact on the resulting stability of an electric power system. The loss of stability and synchronization. Elimination of asynchronous operation. Re-synchronization.

Unit 7. Isolated operation of industrial power plants

Pre-conditions for isolated operation. In-house power plants. Isolated operation of power supply systems. Calculation of steady state and transient regimes of isolated power supply systems. Operation features of governors in isolated conditions. The change of the regime parameters when shifting for isolated operation. Synchronous and asynchronous power in isolated conditions.

Unit 8. Analysis of static and dynamic stability of isolated electric power systems

Features of the analysis of static and dynamic stability of isolated electric power systems. Transmission limits in isolated operation. Frequency and voltage control in an isolated power supply system. Stability of synchronous and induction motors in isolated conditions. The relative angles of a generator rotor and a synchronous motor. Impact of asynchronous power on synchronization when shifting for isolated operation.

Activities:

1. Teacher-led group activities in a classroom;
2. Extracurricular self-study of the teacher’s assignments and tasks, including the use of educational facilities (obligatory);
3. Office-hours.

Total hours – 144

Total points – 4

Classroom hours (lectures, laboratory and practical classes) – 52

Unsupervised hours – 56

Midterm assessment – Pass/fail examination

## Special Issues of Electric Power Supply. Part 2

Programme Summary

Major: 13.04.02 Power Industry and Electrical Engineering

Specialisation: Power Supply

Degree: Master

Course units:

Unit 1. Reactive power compensation in the networks comprising electrical installations.

Unit 2. Main circuits of static VAR compensators for electric arc furnace applications.

Unit 3. Basic principles behind EAF SVC automatic control.

Unit 4. Use of STATCOM in the networks with high nonlinear and abruptly variable loads.

Unit 5. Exploring the frequency parameters of an SVC compensation filter circuit and the main circuit.

Unit 6. Features of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (or FACTS). Main reactive power compensator types.

Unit 7. Automatic control of SVCs used in power transmission lines.

Unit 8. Exploring the dynamic stability of a power grid with SVC in high disturbance conditions.

Unit 9. Exploring the damping of power swings and subsynchronous oscillations in a power grid with SVC.

Unit 10. Specific types of static reactive power compensators designed for power transmission lines.

Course contents:

Unit 1. Reactive power compensation in the networks comprising electrical installations.

Main types of reactive power compensators designed for abruptly variable and asymmetrical loads. SVC operating modes. Consumption and generation of reactive power. Power parameters of the “electric arc furnace/static VAR compensator” system in different EAF and SVC modes.

Unit 2. Main circuits of static VAR compensators for electric arc furnace applications.

Static parameters of the main reactive power compensator types. Design and operation of static reactive power compensators using thyristor-controlled condensers. Power parameters of a SVC thyristor-reactor group.

Unit 3. Basic principles behind EAF SVC automatic control.

Automatic control requirements for SVCs designed for nonlinear abruptly variable and asymmetrical loads. Math model of a SVC thyristor-reactor group. Basic theory behind EAF reactive power compensation allowing for asymmetrical conditions.

Unit 4. Use of STATCOM in the networks with high nonlinear and abruptly variable loads.

STATCOM main circuit features. STATCOM automatic control requirements. Analysis of dynamic parameters of SVC and STATCOM automatic control.

Unit 5. Exploring the frequency parameters of an SVC compensation filter circuit and the main circuit.

SVC compensation filter circuits. Building the equivalent frequency response of the main circuit and a compensation filter circuit. Analysis of higher harmonic filter performance. Purpose, design and operation of active harmonic filters built with fully-controlled voltage converters.

Unit 6. Features of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (or FACTS). Main reactive power compensator types.

Purpose and main types of reactive power compensators designed for power transmission lines. Basic principles behind Flexible AC Transmission Systems (or FACTS).

Unit 7. Automatic control of SVCs used in power transmission lines.

SVC automatic control requirements for SVCs used in power transmission lines. Independent incremental SVC power control for SVCs used in power transmission lines.

Unit 8. Exploring the dynamic stability of a power grid with SVC in high disturbance conditions.

Behaviour of SVCs used in power transmission lines in high and low disturbance conditions. Increasing the dynamic stability of a power grid in high disturbance conditions through the use of SVC.

Unit 9. Exploring the damping of power swings and subsynchronous oscillations in a power grid with SVC.

Damping of power swings and subsynchronous oscillations in a power grid with SVC.

Activities:

• Teacher-led group activities in a classroom;
• Extracurricular self-study of the teacher’s assignments and tasks, including the use of educational facilities (obligatory);
• Office-hours.

Total hours – 144

Total points – 4

Classroom hours (practical classes) – 40

Unsupervised hours – 68

Midterm assessment – Examination

## Special Issues of Electric Power Supply. Part 1

Programme Summary

Major: 13.04.02 Power Industry and Electrical Engineering

Specialisation: Power Supply

Degree: Master

Course units:

Unit 1. Current trends in municipal power supply

Unit 2. Power supply in high-rise buildings and structures

Unit 3. Power supply for electrical equipment designed for specific industrial applications

Unit 4. Power supply for surface mining operations

Unit 5. Power supply for underground mining operations

Unit 6. Power supply for concentration and sintering plants used in steel industry

Unit 7. Power supply for explosion and fire hazardous installations

Unit 8. Power supply for lifting and conveying equipment

Unit 9. Advanced power supply schemes used for agricultural consumers

Unit 10. Start and self-start of electric motors

Activities:

1. Teacher-led group activities in a classroom;
2. Extracurricular self-study of the teacher’s assignments and tasks, including the use of educational facilities (obligatory);
3. Office-hours.

Total hours – 144

Total points – 4

Classroom hours – 40

Unsupervised hours – 68

Midterm assessment – Examination

## Research Project

Programme Summary

Major: 13.04.02 Power Industry and Electrical Engineering

Specialisation: Power Supply

Degree: Master

Courseunits:

• Acquaintance with the subjects of research in industrial power supply and choice of the research subject.
• Making a research plan.
• Reviewing the periodicals and patent data bases to understand how much the problem of one’s Master’s thesis has been studied. Discussing the review made at a research seminar.
• Formulating a research goal. Choosing research methods and measuring means. Preparation.
• Carrying out experimental and theoretical research. Processing the experiments results. Verifying the correctness of the theoretical research results. Writing an abstract and discussing it.
• Discussing the research results, preparing and presenting a conference report.
• Revising the research plan.
• Conducting research following the revised plan.
• Discussing the research results at a seminar. Identifying the originality and the practical relevance of the research.
• Preparing a publication and discussing it.
• Discussing the research at a special seminar involving businesses and leading researchers who analyse the author’s professional competencies.
• Preparing a report. Defending one’s research at a conference.
• Presenting one’s research as a Master’s thesis. Defending the thesis in front of the public.

Coursecontents:

Research is an important part of a Master’s degree course. Research activities enable Master’s degree students to practice their organizational skills and get a true insight into the basic problems of their field of study. When tackling these problems students will face difficult choices requiring the use of advanced research techniques. Students will practice to use scientific facts and established methods to tackle new problems. They will also practice to carry out experiments and analyse the results.

The Master’s degree R&D activities are carried out in the course of four semesters with the total duration of 20 weeks, including a special seminar.

Activities:

1. Teacher-led group activities in a classroom;
2. Extracurricular self-study of the teacher’s assignments and tasks, including the use of educational facilities (obligatory);
3. Office-hours.

Total hours – 1080

Total points – 30

Midterm assessment – Pass/fail examination (with a grade)

## Practical Training

Programme Summary

Major: 13.04.02 Power Industry and Electrical Engineering

Specialisation: Power Supply

Degree: Master

Course units:

• Preparatory phase
• Training
• Report preparation

Course contents:

1. Preparatory phase

1. Obtaining one’s assignment for the training.

2. Learning about the site/organization, as well as the site’s/organization’s safety rules and internal rules and regulations.

2. Training

1. Learning about the corporate structure of the site/organization.

2. Participating in a particular training or production process or research.

3. Acquiring, processing and organizing actual and theoretical information.

4. Practicing certain methods and techniques of processing and representing the research findings.

3. Report preparation

Processing and analysing the data obtained, preparing a report.

Activities:

1. Teacher-led group activities in a classroom;
2. Extracurricular self-study of the teacher’s assignments and tasks, including the use of educational facilities (obligatory);
3. Office-hours.

Total hours – 108

Total points – 3

Midterm assessment – Pass/fail examination (with a grade)

## Power Supply System Software

Programme Summary

Major: 13.04.02 Power Industry and Electrical Engineering

Specialisation: Power Supply

Degree: Master

Course units:

Unit 1. Analysis of steady state regimes of complex electric power systems.

Unit 2. Determining generalized parameters of equivalent circuits.

Unit 3. Direct solution of basic state equations.

Unit 4. Calculation methods involving transformation of input equations or the input circuit.

Unit 5. Methods of solving the sets of state equations.

Unit 6. Electric power system reduction.

Unit 7. Vector diagrams of AC machines.

Unit 8. Equivalent circuits for synchronous and induction machines.

Unit 9. AC machine control system equations.

Unit 10. Mathematical models of an electric power system.

Course contents:

Unit 1. Analysis of steady state regimes of complex electric power systems.

General description of the problem. Basic equations. Classification of calculation methods. Determining node voltages at a given current distribution. Determining power values and power losses in branches at given current distribution and node voltages. Control of static load parameters. Linear approximation when load is viewed as a constant power.

Unit 2. Determining generalized parameters of equivalent circuits.

Node inherent and mutual resistance. Adjusting the node resistance matrix upon network switching changes. Recalculation of the node resistance matrix upon a reference bus change-out. Definition of a current distribution factor matrix and a voltage distribution factor matrix. Calculation of inherent and mutual branch resistances. Definition of an inherent and mutual branch resistance matrix. Incidence matrix.

Unit 3. Direct solution of basic state equations.

Determining branch currents and node voltages based on the superposition principle. Loop opening method. Control of complex transformation ratios by adding ideal transformers and additional currents in the equivalent circuit. Allowing for excitation current and iron losses in a transformer. Determining the power capacity of generator branches. Calculation of quasi-steady state regimes of electric power systems with no isolation of a balancing bus.

Unit 4. Calculation methods involving transformation of input equations or input circuit.

Graph feedback loops exclusion method. Graph loop elimination method. Calculation of power network regimes with banded matrix. Calculation of power network regimes with nodal admittance matrix which is close to the quasi-tridiagonal matrix. Definiens method. Calculation method involving the definition of diagonal blocks. Nodal analysis method. Breaking into subcircuits by means of removing the connecting branches when replacing them with driving currents. Breaking a circuit into subcircuits by splitting the branches. Breaking a circuit into subcircuits by isolating boundary nodes. Diakoptics methods when applying loop-current equations.

Unit 5. Methods of solving the sets of state equations.

Solution of linear algebraic equation sets. Ordered elimination method; approximation method; the Gauss–Seidel method; Newton’s method; minimization methods; topological methods. Two-way minimization methods based on Newton’s plane. Quadratic descent method. Methods of diakoptics. Existence and ambiguity of solutions. Conditions for convergence of calculation methods. Diagonal relaxation method. Regularization of calculation methods.

Unit 6. Electric power system reduction.

The objective of system reduction. Equivalence criteria. Elementary equivalence transformations. Reduction on the basis of a linear equivalent circuit without the generator station EMF.  Reduction on the basis of the node exclusion method in the invariant power loss conditions. Reduction through the integration of generator branches based on the complex EMF values. Accurate and approximate reduction. Designing the steady-state operation of a power supply system comprising in-house power plants through a successive system reduction in parallel and separate operation.

Unit 7. Vector diagrams of AC machines.

Vector diagrams of synchronous generators in a synchronous operation with the power system. Vector diagrams of synchronous motors in a synchronous operation with the power system. Vector diagrams of induction motors. Vector diagrams of synchronous generators and motors in a drop-out situation.

Unit 8. Equivalent circuits for synchronous and induction machines.

Equivalent circuits for synchronous and induction machines when calculating the transients in synchronous conditions and in non-zero sliding conditions. Inductive and active resistances and time constants of synchronous machines. The impact of saturation on synchronous inductive resistance. Negative sequence inductive resistance of a synchronous machine. The impact of element parameters on the system stability.

Unit 9. AC machine control system equations.

Basic equations of synchronous machine excitation current regulators. The equation for proportional voltage control. The equation for compounding system. The equation for the regulator with compound excitation and lagging voltage correction. Automatic transfer switch parameters and their impact on stability. Gain factors. Basic equations of generator prime mover speed governors. Servomotor equations. Time constants of automatic regulators. Allowing for synchronous generator regulators when determining transient parameters. The behaviour of regulators during oscillations. The relationship between the speed governor type and stability.

Unit 10. Mathematical models of an electric power system.

Compound system and research. Lyapunov stability theory. Lyapunov method. Investigation of the roots of a characteristic equation. Algebraic and frequency criteria of static stability. Design of a complex positioning system. The full and simplified math models for calculation of transients. Equations of motion. Application of complete and simplified equations. Designing the transient of a compound system comprising a random number of generators and loads. Defining the power capacity by principle of superposition. The method of successive intervals applied for sophisticated electric power systems.

Activities:

• Teacher-led group activities in a classroom;
• Extracurricular self-study of the teacher’s assignments and tasks, including the use of educational facilities (obligatory);
• Office-hours.

Total hours – 216

Total points – 6

Classroom hours – 39

Unsupervised hours – 141

Term paper in the 2nd semester

Midterm assessment – Examination

## Patents and Intellectual Property Protection

Programme Summary

Major: 13.04.02 Power Industry and Electrical Engineering

Specialisation: Power Supply

Degree: Master

Course units:

Unit 1. Protection of copyright and related rights

Unit 2. Industrial property right protection

Unit 3. Protection of rights for unconventional intellectual property

Course contents:

Unit 1. Protection of copyright and related rights

A concept of intellectual property. Copyright and related rights.

Unit 2. Industrial property right protection

Patent law. Rights to means of individualization.

Unit 3. Protection of rights for unconventional intellectual property

Right for trade secrets. Rights related to know-how and innovation proposals.

Activities:

1. Teacher-led group activities in a classroom;
2. Extracurricular self-study of the teacher’s assignments and tasks, including the use of educational facilities (obligatory);
3. Office-hours.

Total hours – 72

Total points – 2

Practical classes – 15

Unsupervised hours – 57

Midterm assessment – Pass/fail examination

## Optimal Modes of Power Supply Systems

Programme Summary

Major: 13.04.02 Power Industry and Electrical Engineering

Specialisation: Power Supply

Degree: Master

Course units:

Unit 1. Introduction. Basic concepts of the system analysis. Properties of power systems as large-scale systems. Ambiguity of optimization tasks. Decision-making criteria. Multiple objective optimization and expert evaluation methods.

Unit 2. Modelling of an electric power system for optimization purposes. Absolute, relative and differential indices. Elements of an optimization task.

Unit 3. Optimization of active power distribution within a power system. Lagrange multiplier method and incremental rates equality principle. Deviation analysis.

Unit 4. Optimization of active power distribution within a power system of an industrial site with in-house power plants. Application of the dynamic programming method.

Unit 5. Gradient optimization method and its application. Allowing for constraints in the form of inequations. Reduced gradient method.

Unit 6. Deciding on the best combination of running units. Cutoff efficiency criteria, incremental rate based cutoff strategy. Branch and bound method and its application when deciding on the best composition.

Unit 7. Optimized development of power systems and power networks. Static, dynamic and semidynamic production systems. Expenditure objective function. Application of the dynamic programming method when deciding on the best development plan for generating capacity and power networks.

Unit 8. Analysis of specialized articles on power systems optimization.

Unit 9. Building thermal power discharge and incremental rate curves. Calculation of the optimum active power distribution using the incremental rate method.

Unit 10. Dynamic programming used for calculation of the optimum active power distribution in power systems comprising heat-electric generating plants.

Unit 11. Choosing the best combination of running units based on cutoff efficiency criteria.

Unit 12. Application of the branch and bound method when deciding on the best combination of running units.

Unit 13. Calculation of the optimum active power distribution using the gradient method.

Unit 14. Calculation of the optimum active power distribution using the reduced gradient method and allowing for the network constraints.

Unit 15. Dynamic programming when deciding on the best power network development strategy.

Course contents:

A discipline in Optimum Modes of an Electric Power System provides a theoretical basis for long-term and medium-term planning for steady power modes based on technical and economic criteria. The course provides an insight into the mathematical modelling of power system components, power plants, and power supply systems, as well as into the mathematical optimization methods and their practical applications.

Activities:

1. Teacher-led group activities in a classroom;
2. Extracurricular self-study of the teacher’s assignments and tasks, including the use of educational facilities (obligatory);
3. Office-hours.

Total hours – 180

Total points – 5

Classroom hours (lectures & practical classes) – 39

Unsupervised hours – 105

Term paper in the 2nd semester

Midterm assessment – Pass/fail examination